Waste water Treatment Processes (WWTP) is used to treat municipal as well as industrial waste water to meet effluent standards prior to discharge in the natural environment. Waste water discharges from industrial sources contain a wide range in levels of COD, BOD, TSS and other emerging contaminants (i.e.pharmaceuticals, formaldehyde, glycol, amines, alcohols, complex proteins, etc.) This includes process water from industries such as textile plants, dairies,breweries, pharmaceutical industry, paper & pulp, cosmetic, chemical another production facilities.
The major contaminants found In waste water are biodegradable organic compounds, volatile organic compounds, antibiotics, and metal ions, and suspended solids, nutrients such as phosphorous, nitrogen,microbial pathogens and parasites. The approximate composition of organic carbon found in typical sewage wastewater are carbohydrates (11-18 %), proteins (8-10 %), free amino acids(0.5-1.5 %) fatty acids (23-25 %), dissolved organic acids (7-11 %) and other organic compounds (25-28%).
In addition, some water contaminants may be released in the surrounding air generating odors. A water contaminant becomes an odor ant when it combines a high volatility with a pungent odor. Odors problems are common for waste water treatment plants due to the abundance of the odorous contaminants. Typical examples are sulfur compounds (H2S and mercantilism), amines, ammonia and organic compounds such as ska tole and in dole.